With reference to recruitment, Wikipedia states that
"the main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire right quality of workforce..."
It must also meet your employees' needs. This is shown by the way how the analysis can assist in designing a good performance management system.
Components of Job Analysis
Job contents comprising of the duties and responsibilities of the job. This is related to job description.
Job requirements which identity the qualifications, knowledge, skills and characteristics / personality requirements by employees in order to perform the job well. This is usually stated under job specification.
This comprises of reporting relationships, degree of autonomy given to employees, budgetary responsibilities, and physical requirements, among others.
The work processes and procedures
The process involves identifying the duties and responsibilities that are crucial to performance of the job and the achievement of the corporate objectives.
Job analysis involves looking into every employee's duties and responsibilities, the working conditions, the support services and tools provided, inter- and intra-relationships and the knowledge and skills required by the employee to perform the job well.
Information about the job and all other relevant matters is gathered and collated
The information is analyzed and recorded to facilitate better understanding and decision making.
The information obtained is used to rectify any weakness or to make plans for improvement
Information is gathered by:
Conducting personal interviews
Examining files and documents
Observation of the job being carried out in real time
Discussion with employees' superiors
Referring to outside parties who have dealings with the organization such as customers and suppliers
Holding focus groups discussions
Choose the method best suited to your organization's activities.
Find out the answers to the following questions with respect to each job.
Why does the job exist?
What are the physical and mental requirements of the job?
When, where and how is the job to be performed?
What are the qualifications required for the job? (Part of job specification)
What are the working conditions?
What is the machinery or equipment required to effectively perform the job?
What is considered successful performance?
Relationship with Job Description
Job description are written statements that provide the basis why jobs exist. They need constant updating since they only reflect the characteristics of the jobs at a certain point in time.
The components of a job description are:
Duties and responsibilities (stated above)
Know–how or problems solving skill required
Authority given to the job holder
Special circumstances such as risky or hazardous working environment
Required Performance standards and performance measures such as key performance indicators (KPIs)
Trade union or association memberships allowed or required
Job Analysis Requirement: Wrong Understanding Leads to Wrong Results
Get a good understanding of the requirement of job analysis, its main objective and other aspects in order to ensure that such analysis achieves the intended purposes.
It is unfortunate that some managers still do not clearly understand the objectives of conducting analysis.
Wrong way of carrying out Job Analysis
Some organizations use analysis to identify the duties and responsibilities of newly-recruited employees.
In order to analyze jobs, they examine the tasks currently performed by serving employees to find out which tasks newly-recruited employees will carry out.
Such an approach is not right. It is like putting the cart before the horse.
This will result in the devaluation of existing jobs and most probably loss of job satisfaction among job holders. The new employee is paid about the same level of salary for a relatively small contribution to the organization.
New employees are recruited if there are real needs by organizations. You can identify these needs by conducting a manpower needs analysis not the jobs of serving employees.
Job and Manpower Needs Analysis Compared
Job analysis is used to update job descriptions, to identify required skills and competencies, to compare the relative importance of different jobs, and so on.
As a comparison, manpower needs analysis identifies the number of new employees required by organizations. Recruitment of new employees is conducted only after the duties and responsibilities of each of the newly-created positions are prepared and approved by higher management.
When to Conduct Job Analysis
Carry out such analysis in the circumstances stated below.
To ensure that job descriptions reflect what the employees are really doing at the moment;
To update the personnel specifications for each job including required certifications specified under new laws, policy decisions and so on;
There is a need to reassess the relative worth of all or some jobs for the purpose of assessing correct salary ranges;
To understand how each job relate to each other and to update the process;
To list out the tools or equipments necessary to effectively perform each job;
To review positions of rewards scheme;
To improve job performance (Used by some organization)
One approach you can adopt is to clearly understand the "why" and the "how" of job analysis and it can contribute toward better manpower planning.
Ultimate Objective of Job Analysis
Analysis of every job is conducted for the purpose of determining whether or not the job, its characteristics, the conditions under which it is performed and the supports provided to the employee contribute to organizational productivity.
It will also show whether you need to combine certain jobs, whether certain jobs need reclassification, and so on.
In other words, this analysis must form part of the "must do" list in strategic human resource management.