Job analysis focuses on what you expect employees to do and the existing working conditions under which they carry out their work on a daily basis.
Some explain this in terms of the behaviors expected of employees demonstrating that they are performing their jobs well.
Conducting this analysis requires a good understanding of each and every job in the organization, how each job is organized, and the environment under which it is performed.
Objectives or Purposes of Job Analysis
Conducting this analysis provides support for the accomplishment of your organization’s strategic business objectives.
The list of objectives will include the following:
With reference to recruitment, Wikipedia states that
It must also meet your employees' needs. This is shown by the way how the analysis can assist in designing a good performance management system.
Components of Job Analysis
The process involves identifying the duties and responsibilities that are crucial to performance of the job and the achievement of the corporate objectives.
Job analysis involves looking into every employee's duties and responsibilities, the working conditions, the support services and tools provided, inter- and intra-relationships and the knowledge and skills required by the employee to perform the job well.
Information is gathered by:
Choose the method best suited to your organization's activities.
Find out the answers to the following questions with respect to each job.
Relationship with Job Description
Job description are written statements that provide the basis why jobs exist. They need constant updating since they only reflect the characteristics of the jobs at a certain point in time. They will become outdated as time passes.
The components of a job description are:
Well-drafted job descriptions help you in improving your recruitment process.
Get a good understanding of the requirement of job analysis, its main objective and other aspects in order to ensure that such analysis achieves the intended purposes.
It is unfortunate that some managers still do not clearly understand the objectives of conducting analysis.
Wrong way of carrying out Job Analysis Some organizations use analysis to identify the duties and responsibilities of newly-recruited employees.
In order to analyze jobs, they examine the tasks currently performed by serving employees to find out which tasks newly-recruited employees will carry out.
Such an approach is not right. It is like putting the cart before the horse.
This will result in the devaluation of existing jobs and most probably loss of job satisfaction among job holders. The new employee is paid about the same level of salary for a relatively small contribution to the organization.
New employees are recruited if there are real needs by organizations. You can identify these needs by conducting a manpower needs analysis not the jobs of serving employees.
Job and Manpower Needs Analysis Compared Job analysis is used to update job descriptions, to identify required skills and competencies, to compare the relative importance of different jobs, and so on.
As a comparison, manpower needs analysis identifies the number of new employees required by organizations. Recruitment of new employees is conducted only after the duties and responsibilities of each of the newly-created positions are prepared and approved by higher management.
When to Conduct Job Analysis
Carry out such analysis in the circumstances stated below.
One approach you can adopt is to clearly understand the "why" and the "how" of job analysis and it can contribute toward better manpower planning.
Ultimate Objective of Job Analysis Analysis of every job is conducted for the purpose of determining whether or not the job, its characteristics, the conditions under which it is performed and the supports provided to the employee contribute to organizational productivity.
It will also show whether you need to combine certain jobs, whether certain jobs need reclassification, and so on.
In other words, this analysis must form part of the "must do" list in strategic human resource management.